Open source describes the principles and methodologies to promote open access to the production and design process for various goods, products, resources and technical conclusions or advice. The term is most commonly applied to the source code of software that is made available to the general public with either relaxed or non-existent intellectual property restrictions. This allows users to create user-generated software content through either incremental individual effort, or collaboration.
Some consider open source as one of various possible design approaches, while others consider it a critical strategic element of their operations. Before open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; the term open source gained popularity with the rise of the Internet and its enabling of diverse production models, communication paths, and interactive communities.Subsequently, open source software became the most prominent face of open source practices.
Open Access (OA) is free, immediate, permanent online access to the full text of research articles for anyone, webwide.
There are two roads to OA:
(1) the "golden road" of OA journal-publishing , where journals provide OA to their articles (either by charging the author-institution for refereeing/publishing outgoing articles instead of charging the user-institution for accessing incoming articles, or by simply making their online edition free for all)
(2) the "green road" of OA self-archiving, where authors provide OA to their own published articles, by making their own eprints free for all.
The term Open access related to free access to any publications such open access journals or e-book but
the term open source generally related to software i.e. open source software. some the term open access sources
is also used that means the sources which available to open access.
Open-source software (OSS) is computer software that is available in source code form for which the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided under a software license that permits users to study, change, and improve the software. Open source licenses meet the requirements of the Open Source Definition. Some open source software is available within the public domain. Open source software is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner.
The goal of Open Access is to allow information to flow more freely from researchers to other researches and to the public at large. In the case of access problems, copyright law, rather than patent, is the vehicle through which barriers are erected. Nevertheless, the pace of scientific inventions, including those that are likely to become the subject of patents, may be affected by impediments in the flow of information.
Such Open Access systems have developed in response to concerns that articles
Published in scientific journals are too restricted in their availability
Putting Open Access, Open Source, and Open Standards Together
Open access, open source software, and open standards each individually offer a number of significant benefits to libraries. When they are combined the results can be even greater. Open source and open standards can help libraries provide patrons with easier access to open access materials and other resources. There are literally thousands of open access titles available and without open standards it would be very difficult to find what one is looking for or to view various articles. Imagine the difficulty, and costs involved, in maintaining a library's information technology infrastructure if each electronic journal required a separate, proprietary piece of software to read or search the journal. Open standards make it possible to create interoperable systems to access the literature in various open access journals seamlessly.
Open standards and open source can help preserve long-term access to open access and other types of electronic journals. Libraries working together can use open source software such as LOCKSS to ensure continued access to these scholarly publications long into the future. LOCKSS (short for "Lots Of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe") is a system that caches copies of digital collections around the world. As current computers, software, storage media, file formats, and other types of information technology become obsolete, it will be necessary to migrate open access articles and other data to new systems. Without the assistance of the software manufacturer (who may or may not even still be in business, let alone willing to help) proprietary software and file formats may make migration practically impossible. By utilizing open source software and open standards from the beginning, libraries can assure that this type of systems migration will be possible years down the road.
Not only has the growing cost of serials caused libraries to drop journal subscriptions, it has also factored into a 26% decrease of monograph acquisitions by the typical research library between 1986 and 1999 (Create Change 2002). Library budgets can be reallocated to monographs and other areas because of the lower costs typically involved with open access, open source, and open standards.